Posts Tagged ‘ analysis ’

Assessing Social Media – Methods

I have written about various social media and web technologies as they relate to knowledge management (KM), and as they are discussed in the literature.  But I haven’t really touched on how the literature approaches measuring the application and success of such technologies in an organizational context.  Prusak notes that one of the priorities of KM is to identify the unit of analysis and how to measure it (2001, 1004).  In this review paper I will examine some of the readings that have applied this question to social media. For the sake of consistency, the readings I have chosen deal with the assessment of blogs for the management of organizational knowledge, but all of the methods discussed could be generalized to other emerging social technologies.

Grudin indicates that the reason most attempts at developing systems to preserve and retrieve knowledge in the past have failed, is that digital systems required information to be represented explicitly when most knowledge is tacit: “Tacit knowledge is often transmitted through a combination of demonstration, illustration, annotation, and discussion.” (2006, 1) But the situation, as Grudin explains, has changed—“old assumptions do not hold…new opportunities are emerging.” (ibid.) Virtual memory is no longer sold at a premium, allowing the informal and interactive activities used to spread tacit knowledge to be captured and preserved; emerging trends such as blogs, wikis, the ever-increasing efficiency of search engines, and of course social networks such as Twitter and Facebook that have come to dominate the Internet landscape open up a multitude of ways in which tacit knowledge can be digitized.

In his analysis of blogs, Grudin identifies five categories (2006, 5):

diary-like blogs, or personal blogs, developing the skill of engaging readers through personal revelation;

A-list blogs by journalists and high-profile individuals, as a source of information on events products and trends;

Watchlists, which track references across a wide selection of sources, reveal how a particular product, organization, name, brand, topic, etc is being discussed;

Externally visible employee blogs provide a human face for an organization or product, which offsets the potential legal and PR risks for a corporation.

Project blogs are internal blogs that focus on work and serve as a convenient means of collecting, organizing and retrieving documents and communication.

Lee, et al. make a similar move in categorizing the types of public blogs used by Fortune 500 companies (2006, 319):

Employee blogs (maintained by rank-and-file employees, varies in content and format)

Group blogs (operated by a group of rank-and-file employees, focuses on a specific topic)

Executive blogs (feature the writings of high-ranking executives)

Promotional blogs (promoting products and events)

Newsletter-type blogs (covering company news)

Grudin does not conduct any formal assessment of blogs, except to provide examples of project blogs, and to assign technical and behavioral characteristics to that particular sub-type that allowed them to be successful, based on his personal experience (2006, 5-7). Lee, et al.’s approach to assessing blogs involves content analysis of 50 corporate blogs launched by the 2005 Fortune 500 companies (2006, 322-23). In addition to the categories above, Lee, et al. also identified five distinct blogging strategies based on their findings, which broadly fall under two approaches (321):

Bottom-up, in which all company members are permitted to blog, and each blog serves a distinct purpose (not necessarily assigned by a higher authority)[1];

Top-down, in which only select individuals or groups are permitted to blog, and the blogs serve an assigned purpose that rarely deviates between blogs.

As the names suggest, a greater control of information is exercised in the top-down approach, while employee bloggers in companies adopting the bottom-up approach are provided greater autonomy.

Huh, et al. developed a unique approach in their study of BlogCentral, IBM’s internal blogging system (2007).  The study combined interviews with individual bloggers about their blogging practices and content analysis of their blogs.  Based on this data, they were able to measure two characteristics of blogs: the content (personal stories/questions provoking discussion/sharing information or expertise) and the intended audience (no specific audience/specific audience/broad audience).  These findings revealed four key observations:

– Blogs provide a medium for employees to collaborate and give feedback;

– Blogs are a place to share expertise and acquire tacit knowledge;

– Blogs are used to share personal stories and opinions that may increase the chances of social interaction and collaboration;

– Blogs are used to share aggregated information from external sources by writers who are experts in the area.

Rodriguez examines the use of WordPress blogs in two academic libraries for internal communication and knowledge management at the reference desk (2010).  Her analysis measures the success of these implementations using diffusion of innovation and organizational lag theories. Rogers’ Innovation Diffusion Theory establishes five attributes of an innovation that influence its acceptance in an organizational environment: Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, triability, and observability (2010, 109). Meanwhile, organizational lag identifies the discrepancy between the adoption of technical innovation—i.e. the technology itself—and administrative innovation—i.e. the underlying, administrative purpose(s) for implementing the technology, usually representing a change in workflow to increase productivity.  In analyzing the two implementations of the blogging software, Rodriguez discovers that both libraries succeeded in terms of employee adoption of the technical innovation, but failed with the administrative innovation.  This was due specifically to the innovation having poor observability: “the degree to which the results of the innovation are easily recognized by the users and others” (2010, 109, 120). The initiators of the innovation in both cases did not “clearly articulate the broader administrative objectives” and “demonstrate the value of implementing both the tool and the new workflow process.” (2010, 120) If they had done so, Rodriguez suggests, the blogs might have been more successful.

While all of these studies approached blogging in a different way—project blogs, external corporate blogs, internal corporate blogs and internal group blogs—and measured different aspects of the technology—what it is, how it is used, if it is successful—they reveal a number of valuable approaches to studying social media in the KM context. Categorization, content and discourse analysis, interviews, and the application of relevant theoretical models are all compelling methods to assess social media and web technologies.

 


[1] One of the valuable contributions of Lee, et al.’s study is to also identify the essential purposes for which corporate blogs are employed. Some of these include product development, customer service, promotion and thought leadership. The notion of ‘thought leadership’ in particular, as a finding of their content analysis, is worth exploring; ‘thought leadership’ suggest that the ability to communicate innovative ideas is closely tied to natural leadership skills, and that blogs and other social media (by extension) can help express these ideas. Lee, et al.’s findings also suggest that ‘thought leadership’ in blogs will build the brand, or ‘human’ face of the organization, while acting as a control over employee blogs, evidenced by the fact that it is found primarily in blogs that employ a top-down strategy.


Bibliography

Grudin, J. (2006).  Enterprise Knowledge Management and Emerging Technologies. Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 1-10.

Huh, J., Jones, L., Erickson, T., Kellogg, W.A., Bellamy, R., and Thomas, J.C. (2007) BlogCentral: The Role of Internal Blogs at Work.  Proceeding Computer/Human Interaction CHI EA 2007, April 28-May 3. 2447-2452. San Jose, CA.  doi <10.1145/1240866.1241022>

Lee, S., Hwang, T., and Lee, H. (2006). Corporate blogging strategies of the Fortune 500 companies. Management Decision 44(3). 316-334.

Prusak, L. (2001). Where did knowledge management come from? IBM Systems Journal, 40(4), 1002-1007.

Rodriguez, J. (2010). Social Software in Academic Libraries for Internal Communication and Knowledge Management: A Comparison of Two Reference Blog Implementations. Internet Reference Services Quarterly 25(2). 107-124.

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The Implications of Database Design

In studying the database schema for the Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England (PASE), several features of the design are immediately apparent[1].  Data is organized around three principal tables, or data points: the Person (i.e. the historical figure mentioned in a source), the Source (i.e. a text or document from which information about historical figures is derived), and the Factoid (i.e. the dynamic set of records associated with a particular reference in a source about a person).  There are a number of secondary tables as well, such as the Translation, Colldb and EditionInfo tables that provide additional contextual data to the source, and the Event, Person Info, Status, Office, Occupation and Kinship tables, among others, that provide additional data to the Factoid table.  In looking at these organizational structures, it is clear that the database is designed to pull out information about historical figures based on Anglo-Saxon texts.   I admire the versatility of the design and the way it interrelates discrete bits of data (even more impressive when tested using the web interface at http://www.pase.ac.uk ), but I can’t help but recognize an inherent bias in this structure. In reading John Bradley and Harold Short’s article “Using Formal Structures to Create Complex Relationships: The Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire—A Case Study”, I found myself wondering at the choices made in the design of both databases.  The PBE database structure appears to be very similar if not identical to that of the PASE.  Perhaps it’s my background as an English major—rather than a History major—but I found it especially unhelpful in one particular instance: how do I find and search the information associated with a unique author? With its focus on historical figures written about in sources, rather than the authors of those sources, the creators made a conscious choice to value historical figures over authors and sources.  To be fair, the structure does not necessarily preclude the possibility of searching author information, which appears in the Source table, and there is likely something to be said of the anonymous and possibly incomplete nature of certain Anglo-Saxon texts.  In examining the PASE interface, the creators appear to have resolved this issue somewhat by allowing users to browse by source, and listing the author’s name in place of the title of the source (which, no doubt, is done by default when the source document has no official title).  It is then possible to browse references within the source and to match the author’s name to a person’s name[2].  The decision to organize information in this way, however, de-emphasizes the role of the author and his historical significance, and reduces him to a faceless and neutral authority.  This is maybe to facilitate interpretation; Bradley & Short discuss the act of identifying factoid assertions about historical figures as an act of interpretation, in which the researcher must make a value judgment about what the source is saying about a particular person(8).  Questions about the author’s motives would only problematize this act.  The entire organization of the database, in fact, results in the almost complete erasure of authorial intent. What this analysis of PASE highlights for me is how important it is to be aware of the implications of our choices in designing databases and creating database interfaces.  The creators of PASE might not have intended to render the authors of their sources so impotent, but the decisions they made both in the construction of their database tables and of the user interface, and of the approach to entering factoid data had that ultimate result. Bradley, J. and Short, H. (n.d.).  Using Formal Structure to Create Complex Relationships: The Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire.  Retrieved from http://staff.cch.kcl.ac.uk/~jbradley/docs/leeds-pbe.pdf PASE Database Schema. (n.d.). [PDF].  Retrieved from http://huco.artsrn.ualberta.ca/moodle/file.php/6/pase_MDB4-2.pdf Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England. (2010, August 18). [Online database].  Retrieved from http://www.pase.ac.uk/jsp/index.jsp


[1] One caveat: As I am no expert, what is apparent to me may not be what actually is.  This analysis is necessarily based on what I can understand of how PASE and PBE are designed, both as databases and as web interfaces, and it’s certainly possible I’ve made incorrect assumptions based on what I can determine from the structure.  Not unlike the assumptions researchers must make when identifying factoid assertions (Bradley & Short, 8).
[2] For example, clicking “Aldhelm” the source will list all the persons found in Aldhelm, including Aldhelm 3, bishop of Malmsbury, the eponymous author of the source (or rather, collection of sources).  Clicking Aldhelm 3 will provide the Person record, or factoid—Aldhelm, as historical figure.  The factoid lists all of the documents attributed to him under “Authorship”.  Authorship, incidentally, is a secondary table linked to the Factoid table; based on the structure, it seems like this information is derived from the Colldb table, which links to the source table.  All this to show that it is possible but by no means evident to search for author information.

Fulfilling the immortal promise of one Austrian terminator…

Wow.  It’s been awhile.  The dust has to be at least three feet thick in places, and the spiders are monster-sized (don’t even get me started on the cobwebs).

Looks like I’ll be reviving this old dinosaur once more, as an aid in completing this term’s assignments in a timely fashion.  You can expect blog posts on records management issues and posthumanism (surprise!).  I’ve got one of the former already percolating on my back-burner about the failed Edmonton City Centre Airport closure plebescite.  For more info, here’s a great article by Paula Simons summarizing the stakes and the outcome: http://www.edmontonjournal.com/news/Councillors+avoid+taking+easy/3531591/story.html

But first a few housekeeping matters:

  • Haven’t done much with the mission statement project over the summer, although I did complete a draft proposal at the end of the winter term that I apparently forgot to post here.  Expect that in days to come.
  • After taking a long and critical look at my XML/Mandala analysis of robots in Asimov, I’ve decided to completely overhaul my approach.  Not quite sure how I want to go about it, but I want to figure out a way that I can parse my reading of a text in a RDBMS, with the ability to export into XML or other languages for analysis with tools like Mandala.  Coding everything in XML from the start feels a bit like painting myself into a corner, particularly when I’m already looking at other ways of analyzing my “reading” of these texts besides the Mandala browser.  Basically I’m back at square one.  Expect more on this eventually, though not necessarily any time soon.
  • Personal news: Following a rather embarrassing and unremarkable delivery of my paper on Asimov at SDH/SEMI last June, I decided to join Toastmasters.  It’s been a great experience that’s given me some useful insight into how to prepare and present more effectively, as well as an opportunity to practice and build confidence in my speaking skills.  Just recently I won a club contest and will be advancing to the area competition.
  • More personal news: On top of a full courseload, this year I’m working as a reference assistant at Grant MacEwan U. city centre library, research assistant for a project studying risk communication for pregnant women and seniors (in Alberta) during the H1N1 pandemic last year, and I’ve renewed my contract as technology mentor for the Arts Resource Centre on campus.  If the blog goes updateless for several weeks, just assume I’ve had a nervous breakdown and will be released from my padded cell in good time.

And now to take care of those spiders…

Mission Statements: Workshopping the Proposal

While my study on mission statement dissemination is on hold, that doesn’t mean I’ve stopped thinking about it by any means.  I’m currently workshopping a research proposal for the study in two separate courses this term, and by the end of April I’m hoping to have a really fleshed-out plan of how to proceed.  Here are some of the documents that I’ve written and that are helping me shape this project.

PDFs:

Fall 2009, SSHRC Application: Program of Study

Winter 2010, HUCO530, Thesis Question

Winter 2010, LIS505, Research Proposal pt1 – Problem and Definitions

Asimov: Robot Dreams

UPDATE: Mandala screenshots (below)

I’ve begun encoding “Robot Dreams”, a short story about a robot named Elvex (LVX-1) whose positronic brain has been uniquely imprinted with fractal patterns, and as a result has learned how to dream.  This text also features Susan Calvin, the mother of robot psychology in the continuity of most of Asimov’s robot stories.  In my encoding of this text, I’ve run into several challenges:

  • I’m finding “otherness” more difficult to determine than I’d expected.  This story in particular is challenging, because Elvex has become more “human-like” due to the unique architecture of his brain– a fact that appalls his creator and Susan Calvin.  The more Elvex describes his dreams, appearing increasingly “human”, the more the human characters try to distance themselves from him and emphasize his robotic characteristics.  In this situation, there is a definite tension between “other” and “same”; I can’t ignore that tension by making that attribute “null”, but how can I determine otherness in such an ambivalent circumstance?  …One solution is to look at the source’s motivation.  Is the source saying/doing something to create distance between human and robot, or to draw them closer together?  This raises a new challenge:
  • Can a reference then have multiple sources?  Can multiple sources have different motivations, and thus represent different levels on “otherness”?  If the answer is yes, how do I encode this?  …The answer I’ve come up with is to nest my pr_ref tags.  It’s still too early to tell if this is an effective strategy, but I’m trialing it.
  • How do I define my type attributes when it seems that the reference is fulfilling more than one of the possible types?  (e.g. in “Robot Dreams”  Susan Calvin interviews Elvex in her characteristically cold, clinical way.  Most of her questions/statements directed at Elvex can be construed both as “interactive”– since she is “interacting” with the robot– and “descriptive”– since she is describing the robot.)  One possible answer is to look at the possibility of multiple sources again.  The other is to identify a hierarchy of types: emotion trumps interaction trumps description, since all references “describe” something, but not all references “describe” an interaction, and not all interactions are emotional.  Without clearly setting this rule out, I think this is a strategy I followed when encoding “Someday”.  When there is a clearly a situation of multiple sources looking at motivation can again be valuable, and using nested tagging seems the natural answer.

I chose “Robot Dreams” because it has several elements that I felt needed to be explored in my analysis of Asimov’s robot stories.  First of all, whereas in “Someday” the two human characters were male children, in “Robot Dreams” the two human characters are female adults.  I wanted to see if gender and age played a factor (note: my tweaked encoding currently doesn’t catalog age as a factor– if it looks like this might be valuable information to mine, I may add it in future iterations).  Secondly it included Susan Calvin.  Although I have not, as yet, developed an element structure to analyze principal human characters, it has always been my intention for Calvin to be my first attempt.  Not only is her name synonymous with Asimov’s robot stories as a recurring character, but she plays a unique role in them as a foil for the various robots she psycho-analyzes; it would be a valuable exercise to compare the relationship references to her with those of the principle robot characters in the same stories.  Is Susan Calvin characterized as more robot (“other”) or more human?  In comparison, are the robot characters more or less human? Does she elicit more of an emotional response from the figures that interact with her?  An examination of reference sources in this analysis is useful too: does she express emotion more or less than the average robot?

Finally, the problem of “otherness” is central to this text.  I feel that the tension between being “too human” and “too different” is one that makes Asimov’s work so universally engaging, and has not been explored to its fullest.  My XML encoding can– hopefully– reveal exactly how that tension is expressed through the relationships in the text.

***

I have completed a first encoding of the principal robot references in “Robot Dreams”.  Here are screenshots of Mandala evaluating “otherness” from the perspective of the three characters: Elvex (principal robot), Susan (principal human), and Linda (secondary human).  Click on the thumbnails below to view the images in full size.

Asimov Update: Gender and Otherness

I’ve been working on my encoding of Asimov’s robot stories, and reworked the pr_ref tag to include attributes for the source gender and “otherness”, as well as generalized the source attribute values (phuman, shuman, probot, srobot, nvoice) so it can be used when analyzing a corpus of different texts.

My encoding can now examine the relation to gender of human-robot interactions in the text (i.e. do more female characters respond emotionally to the robots than male characters?  Do male characters physically interact with the robots more? etc.)

I can also track which references demonstrate a portrayal of the robot as “other”, and which references portray the robot as “same” in relation to the source factions in the text.  This otherness/sameness dichotomy is by no means a perfect science, but given a careful reading most references in the text usually imply one or the other.   (Not unlike determining the difference between an emotive and an interactive reference, determining “otherness” relies on interpretation.)

As well, I have made it possible for the principal robot character to reference itself.  This is important in a text like “Someday”, where the robot “the Bard” tells a story about itself.

Click on the screenshot below to see an example of how I’m using the Mandala browser to visualize these features.

Mandala Browser

The Bard's robot references and their "otherness"

Speculative Computing, Digital Media, and Visual Quotation

HuCo 500 – Weekly questions

Kolker posits that digital media answers the problem film scholars face in referencing a work by means of quotation to prove or illustrate an argument.  Putting aside for the moment the obstacles film scholars face with regard to programming/computing requirements, available technologies and resources, and copyright and intellectual property issues, how does the implementation of digital media as means of quotation change the way we conduct research/scholarship?  Kolker uses CD-ROM and the Web as examples of how digital media can be integrated in critical analysis; what are some other examples of how new media can be employed to benefit scholarly research and answer the problem of quotation?

 

From a distance, even a middle distance of practical engagement, much of what is currently done in digital humanities has the look of automation. (Drucker & Nowviskie)

Is this statement true?  I would argue that even a cursory examination of digital humanities should show that it is more than merely about “automation” or computational methods in the service of traditional humanities research.  It seems clear to me already, as it did when I first became interested in issues “cybercultural” (and long before I entered this MA program) that digital humanities is as much about the technologies we use as it is the use of technology (to “theoretically gloss” our discussions, as Drucker & Nowviskie phrase it).

 

Bonus question:

The requirement that a work of fiction or poetry be understood as an “ordered hierarchy of content objects”… raises issues, as Jerome McGann has pointed out. (Drucker & Nowviskie)

How else can we understand a work or text, if not as an “ordered hierarchy of content objects”?  What are the alternatives?  How else can we conceptualize such works, and how would we formalize these conceptualizations using computational methods?

 

Readings:

Drucker, Johanna (and Bethany Nowviskie). “Speculative Computing: Aesthetic Provocations in Humanities Computing.” A Companion to Digital Humanities, ed. Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, John Unsworth. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.

Kolker, Robert. “Digital Media and the Analysis of Film.” A Companion to Digital Humanities, ed. Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, John Unsworth. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.